Pension system in Poland

  • June 22, 2024
Pension system in Poland

The pension system in Poland includes the state pension fund (ZUS), private pension funds and individual savings. The main principles of the system include mandatory contributions from wages, a minimum length of service to receive a pension, and the possibility of taking into account the length of service earned in other countries, such as Ukraine. Understanding how the system works is very important for those who wish to receive a pension in Poland. 

Pension age and minimum length of service

In Poland, the retirement age is 60 for women and 65 for men. These are fixed age limits at which citizens can retire and receive the corresponding payments. The minimum length of service is also important for receiving a pension: for women it is 20 years and for men it is 25 years. This length of service must be accumulated during the official labor activity and includes the periods for which insurance contributions were made to the pension fund.

Structure of the pension system

State Pension Fund (ZUS):

The main element of the Polish pension system is the state pension fund ZUS (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych). Employees contribute 12% of their monthly salary to this fund. Payments from the ZUS are provided by the state social insurance fund, which guarantees a basic pension for all registered employees.

Private pension funds:

The second element of the system is the private pension funds. They receive 7.8% of a worker's salary. These funds invest the money received in various securities and assets, which allows to accumulate additional funds for future pension. Employees can choose which private fund to direct their contributions to, which gives them some flexibility in managing their pension savings.

Individual savings:

It is also possible to open pension accounts with banks for individual savings. These are voluntary accounts to which citizens can independently transfer additional funds. Such accounts provide an opportunity to increase the amount of future pension payments and to ensure themselves financially in old age.

Pension system in Poland

Mutualization of seniority for Ukrainians

The agreement on social security between Poland and Ukraine allows to take into account the length of service earned in both countries. This means that Ukrainians working in Poland can add up the periods of official employment in Ukraine and Poland to achieve the necessary length of service to receive a pension.

The treaty, signed in 2014, regulates social security issues and provides for mutual recognition of insurance periods. For example, if a man has worked 20 years in Ukraine and 5 years in Poland, both periods will be taken into account when calculating his pension in Poland. This simplifies the process of receiving pension payments and allows Ukrainians to receive a pension under the same conditions as Polish citizens, provided that all the necessary requirements are met.

Size of pensions

Minimum pension:

As of March 2022, the minimum pension in Poland is 1217.98 PLN. This amount of payments is set for those who have met the minimum requirements for length of service and insurance contributions.

Average pension:

The average pension in Poland is around 2,500 zlotys. This varies depending on the amount of insurance contributions paid and the length of employment.

Pension calculation formula:

The amount of pension is calculated according to the following formula: The amount of insurance contributions paid, indexed to the date of assignment of payments, is divided by the number of months remaining until the end of the projected life expectancy of the pension. This method takes into account both salary and length of employment, making the calculation fair and balanced.

Read also: Taxation for Ukrainians in Poland

Pension in Poland

Additional benefits and payments

13th and 14th pensions:

Pensioners in Poland can expect additional benefits in the form of 13th and 14th pensions. These payments help to improve the standard of living of pensioners. The 14th pension is paid in full if the total pension is less than 2900 PLN. If the pension exceeds this amount, the 14th pension is reduced for each zloty of the excess.


Polish pensioners are also entitled to various benefits that make their daily lives easier. These benefits include:

  • Preferential fares for travel, which allows pensioners to use public transportation at a reduced price.
  • Discounts on medications, which helps to reduce medical expenses.
  • Free medications for those over 75 years of age, which greatly eases the financial burden on seniors.

These additional payments and benefits help retirees and support a more comfortable standard of living for them.

Elena Chernenko

Elena Chernenko

Elena is a recognized expert in the bus transportation industry. With a deep understanding of the industry and a wealth of experience, Elena has earned a reputation for reliability working with both large carriers and private companies. Her expertise includes route planning, safety analysis and efficiency of transportation solutions.

In her blog, Elena offers professional advice, reviews current market trends and shares her experience to help readers better understand the world of bus transportation.

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